Futility of negotiating with NCP renowned for abrogating Agreements signed with Parties
By Mahmoud A. Suleiman
Marathon negotiations amid the lack of commitment of the NCP regime renowned for its breach of covenants signed with parties in the conflict proved futile. The political Islamist NCP is a recidivist in the aspect of breaching of trust. This is because the (NCP) regime considers cheating others who are in conflict with it Sharia jurisprudence justifies it, without considering the ethics of tolerance, which the true religion of Islam calls for.
Lack of commitment of the NCP regime to the peace agreements reached and signed with the parties to the conflict in Darfur after a marathon of negotiations was the pickaxe for the demolition of the State of Sudan and its inhabitants.
In the reign of the political Islamism of the National Islamic Front/National Congress Party (NIF/NCP) regime genocide by attrition continues with impunity in Darfur. The regime led by the fugitive from the international justice the Génocidaire Omer Hassan Ahmed al-Bashir repeated reneging on agreements he has signed with the parties. The regime in Khartoum abrogates promises.
Thus, without winking an eyelid and without the sting of modesty and remorse or guilt, the regime abrogates treaties. Anyone believes that striking a deal for peace or National Dialogue with the NCP is either naïve, deluded, or opportunistic. All the promises given by the regime of the National Congress Party intended to buy time to plan a new plot and to stay longer in power without considering the plight of the Sudanese people who are the most patient in dealing with hardship. The Sudanese people in all its components are before a bitter reality where there is no way in front of them other than hard work to overthrow the (NCP) entity, throw it at the bottom of the dustbin of history, and find the democratic alternative as the best system of governance for the country. It’s a tough assignment for the marginalised Sudanese people to continue upright steadfast and it will either make or break situation though.
Given the historicity and complexity of the Sudanese conflicts in, peace building in the reign of the political Islamism is such as running behind a mirage, thinking that there is water to the thirsty!
Key Words for the National Islamic Front/National Congress Party’s behaviours include Abrogation of treaties/breach of covenants/ breach of promise/ breach of trust/ breach of faith/ perjury
The Negotiated Agreements for Peace in the Darfur Crisis between the NCP regime and the Darfuri Rebel Movements over the years:
- Humanitarian agreement for a cease-fire in Darfur and the protocol on the establishment of humanitarian aid in Darfur on Z in April 2004 in N’Djamena in Chador
- Agreement with the Sudanese parties on mechanisms to create the Office of the cease-fire and the deployment of observers in Darfur, dated May 28, 2004 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
- Protocol between the Government of Sudan and the Sudan Liberation Army and the Justice and Equality Movement on the improvement of the humanitarian situation in Darfur, dated November 9, 2004 in Abuja, Nigeria
- Protocol between the Government of Sudan and the Sudan Liberation Army and the Justice and Equality Movement on the strengthening of the security situation in Darfur, according to the N’djamena agreement on p November 2004 in Abuja in Nigeria
- The Declaration of Principles for resolving the conflict in Sudan’s Darfur, dated July 5, 2005 in Abuja, Nigeria
- Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA) known also as the Abuja Agreement, signed on May 5, 2006 between the government of Sudan (GoS) and the splinter group from the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) led by Mini Minnawi proved unsustainable At the time, the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) leader late Dr. Khalil Ibrahim and the Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) faction leader Abdelwahid Mohammed Nour rejected the agreement and refused to sign the (DPA).However, the Justice and Equality Movement (Jem), call for fundamental changes to the document was denied. The Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA) expectations unfulfilled and Minni Minnawi opted for taking up arms again. The DPA was imposed on Darfurians under duress. Political analysts indicated that the sources of the ideas of DPA were the African Union (AU) and imposed by the highest officials of USA and UK ministries of foreign affairs
- Darfur Draft Peace Plan for the Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA) or Abuja Peace Agreement included:
1) Pro-government Janjaweed militia to be disarmed
2) Rebel fighters to be incorporated into the Sudanese army
3) One-off transfer of $300m to Darfur
4) $200m a year for the region thereafter
5) Compensation for those forced to flee their homes
6) Regional government, if approved in a vote
The Darfur peace Agreement (DPA) signed in May 2006 has failed to halt the cycle of violence and suffering to the people of Sudan in Darfur.
- Sirte, Libya negotiations on Darfur started in October 2007 amid the absence of Justice and equality movement (JEM) and Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) Unity faction whereas the founder of the SLM Abdelwahid Mohamed Ahmed Nur said he would not travel to Libya to participate in the talks. However, Ahmed Ibrahim Diraig addressed the opening session on behalf of the Darfur armed movements beside Salim Ahmed Salim, Special Envoy of the African Union Mission for Darfur, Jan Eliasson, Special Envoy of the Secretary-General of the United Nations and Alpha Conakry the Chairperson of the African Union Commission
- Goodwill and Confidence building agreement between the Government of Sudan and the Justice and Equality Movement on February 23, 2010 in Doha, Qatar
- Framework Agreement between the Government of Sudan and the Justice and Equality Movement on February 23, 2010 in Doha, Qatar, ending seven years of war between the two parties. Key provisions of the framework agreement include a two-month ceasefire, release of JEM prisoners in Khartoum and recognition of JEM as political party. In accordance with the signed deal a ceasefire is proclaimed between the two parties also Khartoum will release a part of JEM fighters sentenced to death by the Sudanese government following an attack on Khartoum in 10 May 2008, dubbed as Operation Long Arm (OLA). JEM set free all the Government of Sudan war prisoners in its custody. The Government of Sudan released some of JEM soldiers and kept the senior members of JEM. Ironically, the NCP regime refused to to receive the prisoners of war (POWs) who were released by the Justice and Equality Movement at occasions and they had to be handed over to the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) or handed over them to the POWs respective leaders of the civil Native Administration.
- According to the BBC at the time on Friday, 5 May 2006, 21:52 GMT 22:52 UK e: The Sudanese government and the largest rebel group in the Darfur region have signed a peace deal aimed at ending three years of conflict. However, two smaller rebel groupings rejected it, despite last-minute efforts to secure their support. The deal, which follows intense talks in Nigeria, calls for the disbandment of rebel forces and the disarmament of the pro-government Janjaweed militia.
- US Deputy Secretary of State Robert Zoellick, who helped broker the (DPA) deal, said it was a first step on what could still be a difficult path.
- Framework Agreement between the Government of Sudan and the Liberation and Justice Movement (LJM) on March 18, 2010 in Doha, Qatar. The Liberation and Justice Movement consists of 10 separate groups, five of which reportedly receive backing from Libyan President Muammar Qaddafi and the other five formed in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from splinter rebels supported by the US special Envoy Scott Gration.
- Cease-fire agreement between the Government of Sudan and the Liberation and Justice Movement (JEM) on March 18, 2010 in Doha, Qatar!
- The Doha Document for Peace in Darfur (DDPD) allegedly finalised at the’ All Darfur Stakeholders Conference’ in May 2011, in Doha, Qatar. On 14 July, the Government of Sudan and the Liberation and Justice Movement (LJM) signed a protocol agreement committing to the Document, which is now the framework for the ‘comprehensive’ peace process in Darfur.
- The Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) rejected the Doha Document for Peace in Darfur (DDPD) and provided a Comprehensive Document alternative to the (DDPD. The Government of Sudan (GoS) refused it outright. the Justice and Equality Movement became in front of a fait accompli, where there is no way in front of him other than the armed struggle in defense of the legitimate rights of the people of Sudan in Darfur and the fight against marginalization and its devastating effects.
- As a result of the lack of commitment entity National Congress party to the agreements signed by the parties to the conflict has become pointless to negotiate with the government of Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir fugitive from international justice and wanted by the International Criminal Court for alleged war crimes and crimes against humanity and genocide in Darfur
Dr. Mahmoud A. Suleiman is an author, columnist and a blogger. His blog is https://thussudan.wordpress.com/