The military coups Epidemics handcuffed progress of Sudan and effects still at a standstill
By Mahmoud A. Suleiman
Sudan and Military Coups
Tuesday July 19, 2016 marks the 45th anniversary of the military coup, which led by Maj. Hashim Ata against the ruling military regime – also called May 25 Revolution, led by Mohammed Jaafar Nimeiri.
MBM replaced SCP as new allies to Nimeiri
The military coup led by Hashim al-Ata on July 19, 1971 is a milestone in the modern history of Sudan. The consequences of the coup had changed the course of politics. Those repercussions made Jaafar Nimeiri to get rid of his former leftist allies, the Sudanese Communist Party (SCP), and relied on the New Allies the Muslim Brotherhood Movement (MBM), which hit the people of the country in kill off.
The epidemic of military coups plagued the Sudanese people since the dawn of independence from the clutches of the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium colonialism on 01.01.1956 and until today’s date. Thus, the Sudanese people remained living under totalitarian military dictatorship regimes for 49 years, discounted from the 60 years of independence! General Ibrahim Abboud’s military junta ruled for 6 years, May 25 regime of Jaafer Nimeiri reined for 16 years. Obviously, have not, would not ignore the ill-fated military coup led by the National Islamic Front (NIF) under the gripping of arbitrariness, failure, corruption, and genocide for 27 years, and remains the nightmare.
The Sudanese people have been plagued by the epidemic of military coups and oppressive military regimes the ruled the country with iron fist since the dawn of independence, which crippled the country from progress to the prospects for progress, prosperity , stability, good governance, rule of law, justice and equality. Moreover, and briefly, the Sudanese people bitterly remember the history of the military coups. Hashim Ata military coup of July 19 in 1971 against the military regime of the May 25, 1969 led by Jaafar Mohammed Nimeiri was the brutality dealt with which Nimeiri exercised his revenges.
The military coup led by Hashim Ata on July 19, 1971 remembered by the people of Sudan for the brutality practiced in retaliation against the coup plotters. The retaliatory process was unprecedented and marked by the massacre against a group of army officers inside the famous building known as the “Guest House” in Khartoum where Nimeiri arbitrarily executed all the group of military officers in it in a massacre fashion. The retaliatory process included the Secretary General of the Sudanese Communist Party (SCP) Abdel Khaliq Mahjoub and the General Secretary of the Trade Union Federation of the Sudanese Labour Movement al-Shafei Ahmed El-Sheikh and member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, Joseph Garang who was also a southern Sudanese politician, for allegedly masterminding the failed coup attempt. The May 25 regime executed them on July 28, 1971. As for the three coup leaders, the Libyan leader Colonel Muammar Gaddafi handed the over the three of them to Sudan and were executed. They three were reported to have been taken from a British airline in Libya while en route from London to Khartoum. They included the Major General Hashim al-Atta and his two colleagues/comrades Lt. Colonel Babikir al-Nour and Major Farouk Hamadallah. On 23 July 1971 Nimeiry, loyalists freed Nimeiry and returned him to power. Hashim al-Atta was summarily marshaled and sentenced to death alongside the other coup leaders. He was executed later the same day by firing squad. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hashem_al_Atta
Ironically, the regime of Marshall Gaafar Muhammad an-Nimeiry the President of Sudan from 1969 to 1985 has changed his socialist ideology after the failed military coup attempt of Hashem al- Atta, proclaimed himself Imam of the Muslims, brought in the National Islamic Front (NIF) as his ally, and issued his notorious so-called “September Laws”. The September laws were penalties for wine drinkers and theft, where the perpetrators of petty crimes are subjected to punishment of beatings with whips and the amputation of hands and legs so on. Most often, they applied to citizen civilians in the lower social class. Thus, the National Islamic Front (NIF) entity found the golden opportunity to take revenge of their opponents that included Mahmoud Mohamed Taha, AKA Ustaz Mahmoud who was executed on 18 January 1985 (aged 76) for the crime of apostasy. Ustaz Mahmoud Mohammed Taha was a politician, religious thinker, Civil Engineer and founder and the leader of Republican Brotherhood (RB) in Sudan.
The deeds of the New Allies of Nimeiri the NIF (the Muslim Brotherhood Movement)
The 28 Ramadan massacres of 28 officers
On 24 April 1990, during Ramadan, the National Islamic Front (NIF) government executed 28 army officers and more than 200 non-commissioned officers suspected of involvement in an attempted coup d’état. To date, the relatives of army officers who were executed in 28 Ramadan do not know where their bodies were buried. They were reportedly machine-gunned and buried in a mass grave. The media reported that Omer Hassan Ahmed al- Bashir, President of the ruling regime of the NCP has issued a statement condemning the failed attempt of military coup in Turkey. He apparently has forgotten that he had come to power in Sudan on June 30, 1989, following the military coup that overthrew the democratically elected government in Sudan. It’s one of the sad ironies and funny at the same time showing the hypocrisy and double standard position. Nevertheless, we the Sudanese people do not condone military coup de ’tat. That is because we in Sudan have been suffering from the ravages of totalitarian regimes that came through military coups. Moreover, the Islamist regime of the NCP led by the genocidal criminal, Omar Hassan Ahmed al-Bashir is the worst by any standards.
The 28th Ramadan lynching of 28 army officers
Here comes the straw that broke the camel’s back. That is the execution of the 28 army officers comes to mind immediately. 28 army officers and noncommissioned officers were subjected to extrajudicial execution during the fasting day on the 28th of the Holy month of Ramadan by the ruling regime NIF. They were accused of attempted military coup against the Putschist Muslim Brotherhood Movement (MBM) led by the then Brigadier – General Omar Hassan Ahmed El-Bashir, the incumbent President of the National Congress Party (NCP) regime. To date, the relatives of the army officers who were executed on the 28th of Ramadan do not know where their bodies were buried.
Declaration of Jihad War against the citizens of Southern Sudan
Young Sudanese Men lured by the NIF regime to fight the South Sudanese People who were labelled as infidel. Thus, the regime directed a religious mania against the people of Southern Sudan in a televised programme named “in the Arenas of Redemption”. The Sudanese youth in universities and higher institutes were lured for recruitment to fight the infidels in order to achieve martyrdom, enter Haven, and marry virgins. The campaign was a success and a large number of young people, joined the alleged Holy War where large number of them lost their lives in South Sudan jungles. That attitude of the NIF regime made it clear to the people of Southern Sudan that Unity with the north of Sudan, which adopts the principle of racial supremacy of Arabism and killing Sudanese citizens of religions other than Islam is unattractive. The people of southern Sudan decided to secede after a groundbreaking referendum result in 2010 and they formed their nascent state called South Sudan. Accordingly, the NIF regime, by doing that has deprived Sudan of one third of its land, wealth and above all citizens.
NCP wages proxy genocidal warfare in Darfur
After the ruling regime of the NCP felt reassured of harm that might come from the Sudanese armed forces (SAF) it decided to silence the voice of the people of the marginalized territories who have been advancing their demands of basic service and participation in the division of wealth and sharing in power Omar al-Bashir decided to silence those voices. He said he would not negotiate with anyone not carrying arms. After the defeats his army suffered in major battles at the hands of the Darfur armed rebels, Omer al-Bashir decided to take revenge on the unarmed noncombatant civilians. He campaigned for ethnic cleansing, genocide, and crimes against humanity and war crimes in Darfur and the Nuba Mountains and the Blue Nile and eastern Sudan and Nubian areas in the far Nilotic north of Sudan. For the warfare in Darfur, Omer al-Bashir used proxy wars of attrition carried out by the infamous notorious Janjaweed militias and mercenaries from neighboring African countries.
ICC is Chasing al-Bashir
By committing those reprehensible crimes against the Sudanese people in Darfur, Omar al-Bashir has reaped the result of his evil deeds. He became in face to face with the International Criminal Court (ICC). The ICC at The Hague indicted him of crimes against humanity, war crimes and genocide in Darfur. Moreover, the court issued a warrant of arrest for Omar al-Bashir, who is still a fugitive from international justice. However, he became like a scabby avoided and banished by most people and by all of the nations of the free world; except the members of the Dictators Forum, so-called the African Union (AU)!
NCP plans to Discredit ICC failed
The tireless efforts of the National Congress Party (NCP) regime affiliates to discredit the International Criminal Court (ICC) have failed miserably.
Yemen Civil War
As a result of the NCP regime’s senseless and absurd civil wars and corruption, the country people have suffered poverty and economic hardship. The economy of Sudan deteriorated to become bankrupt which made the ruling regime of the NCP resorting to gain handouts by begging in the Arab Gulf States and to implicate Sudan in the Yemen civil war. Sudan does not have any right to get involved in that sectarian civil strife the result of which are the victims among the Sudan Armed Force (SAF) members.
That was the era of bloody retaliatory violence. The atrocious crimes committed by the (NIF) assassins against fellow Comrades in armed services were for the lust for power and domination on the helm of Sudan and they sought to extend their corrupt tyranny. The hypocrites in the (NCP) regime have ignored the teaching of Islam and the verses of the Holy Qur’an which says in Sura number 5 Al-Maeda, Juz 6, Aya 32, Translation of meanings: (Because of that We ordained for the Children of Israel that if anyone killed a person not in retaliation of murder, or (and) to spread mischief in the land – it would be as if he killed all mankind, and if anyone saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of all mankind. And indeed, there came to them Our Messengers with clear proofs, evidence, and signs, even then after that many of them continued to exceed the limits (e.g. by doing oppression unjustly and exceeding beyond the limits set by Allah by committing the major sins) in the land!).
Of the many motives of this article is that this important occasion in the history of Sudan should not go without mentioning and reminding the Sudanese people to take lessons, and especially for the generations that were not present then.
Dr. Mahmoud A. Suleiman is an author, columnist and a blogger. His blog is https://thussudan.wordpress.com/