Comparing Colombian President Santos and Sudanese President Bashir Tells Underhand Deals
By Mahmoud A. Suleiman
هذه محاولة ضمن محاولات تتالت، مني للنظر في المقارنة بين عمر البشير رئيس السودان و سانتوس رئيس كولومبيا
المقارنة تروى لنا صفقات سرية مخادعة!
Type of the Study
This is a semi-comparative study from the perspective of the personalities of the presidents of the two countries on two different continents: Sudan’s President Omar al-Bashir and President Santos of Colombia, for their achievements to the people of their country, how to deal with the armed and civil opposition and the emergence of their respective personalities worldwide, To what extent each of them made efforts to reach to sustainable peace in their respective countries. The study also asks as to whether the respective country has been participating in a regional or in an international war for a financial return.
More importantly, the pivotal question is as to what have the two Presidents done so far in their quest for achieving real sustainable peace resulting into the silence of the guns once and for all.
This is an attempt in successive series of attempts to consider the comparison between Omar Hassan Ahmed al-Bashir, president of Sudan, and Juan Manuel Santos, president of Colombia. Let us compare-and-contrast the leaders of the two war-torn countries Colombia in Latin America and Sudan in the African Continent from the perspective of their incumbent leaders.
Dear esteemed reader, it might appear that such comparison seems somewhat mismatched, unequal and at best unfair. Some might say it is like the comparison between the earthالثرى and the star Pleiades الثريا in Heaven as they say! As if it were a comparison between heaven and earth at best, they say, the comparison between the rich and the poor or it may be considered an insult to the Colombian President Santos to compare him with President Omar al- Bashir the fugitive from universal justice. However and despite the possibility of all these arguments, I decided to proceed with this similitude as a kind of referendum with the difference that appears during the transient view or a stray look or at a glance.
The other question that is expected to be asked is as to what is the benefit of such comparison. In response to that question, one would answer by saying that it is in order to make the people of Sudan understand that some of them believe that things in Sudan are not different than in the rest of the world. We tell them that this is a false belief. The other important thing is that the Colombian issue started more than fifty years ago; a very long crisis whereas the Darfur crisis is fourteen years old. People in Sudan say it is too long war without looking at the Colombian one. In spite of the 50 years or so duration, Santos succeeded to put an end to it while Bashir continues his killing lust killing more than half a million civilians in 14 years. The number of victims of war death in Colombia in 50 years is less than that in Darfur in 14 years.
The first question that might be expected to be asked would be as to what is the purpose for the comparison and the contrast? The answer to that loaded question, by paraphrasing, is to analyze the life history in power of the two incumbent Presidents and comparing them and contrasting them. The purpose of writing a comparison or contrast is not to state the obvious but rather to illuminate subtle differences or unexpected similarities between the two Presidents. This is given the misery the populations of the two nations have been languishing in deprivation and all the war-related woes for years. In the case of the Colombian Conflict that began in the mid-1960s, precisely on 27 May 1964 – present; (52 years) as is a low-intensity asymmetric war between Colombian governments, paramilitary groups, crime syndicates, and left-wing guerrillas such as the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), and the National Liberation Army (ELN), fighting each other to increase their influence in Colombian territory. As for the Sudanese conflict in the western region of Darfur that began in February 26, 2003 – present (14 years) initially between the two rebel groups, the Sudan Liberation Army/ Movement (SLA/M) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) against the Government of Sudan (GoS) when the President Omer Hassan Ahmed al-Bashir stated that his (GoS) would not negotiate on the fair distribution of power and wealth with anyone not carrying arms, because he came to power through the Gun barrel – AKA Military Coup de état. The rebel groups initially made up of the SLM/A and the JEM, recruited primarily from the non-Arab tribes of Fur, Zaghawa, and Masalit ethnic groups. The (GoS) recruited the Janjaweed militias to fight a proxy war against the rebel groups who managed to gain victory against the (GoS) army, Sudan Armed Force (SAF). The Janjaweed are militias that operate in western Sudan and eastern Chad. Using the United Nations definition, the Janjaweed comprised of Sudanese Arab tribes, the core of who are from the Abbala – Nomadic Camel herders. Instead of facing the rebel group fighters, the Janjaweed attacked the civilian population who the (GoS) considered them as supporters of the rebels. Thus, the Janjaweed militias ran havoc in the land with corruption killing the unarmed noncombatant civilians, burning villages and looting property of survivors of the ethnic cleansing. The people surviving and suffered the impact of the ordeal were forced to go into displacement camps, whereas others took migration as their forced option to Chad and other neighbouring countries in West Africa. The government of Sudan armed and funded Arab militias, the Janjaweed (which loosely translates to ‘devils on horseback’ have systematically destroyed the civilians in Darfur by burning villages, looting economic resources, polluting water sources, and murdering, raping, and torturing civilians. As of today, over 480,000 people have been killed in Darfur, and over 2.8 million people are displaced. The population of Darfur is estimated at 6,000,000 people. The conflict in Darfur has also increased tensions in neighboring Chad and the Central African Republic (CAR) as hundreds of thousands of refugees streaming over the two countries’ borders to escape violence. As of 4th March 2009, the Sudanese President Omer Hassan Ahmed al-Bashier has been indicted by the International Criminal Court (ICC) as having committed crimes against humanity, war crimes and genocide. This was because al-Bashir is the Supreme Commander of the Sudanese army (SAF) as well as he had issued orders to the Janjaweed militias to carry out those heinous crimes by proxy. Omer Hassan Ahmed a-Bashir ever since remained a fugitive from the international justice. Compared to Bashir, President Santos of Colombia has never committed any crimes against his citizens even he tried everything possible and effort to reach a sustainable peace agreement with the rebels FARC and received subsequently the Nobel Prize for Peace for the Year 2016 award.
Compared and Contrasted
مقارنة بين الرئيس الكولومبي و الرئيس السودانى
A contrast between the Peace maker President Juan Manuel Santos of Colombia and Sudan’s Warmonger Omer Hassan Ahmed al-Bashir the Genocidal! President Santos, from Hawk to Dove and from Defence Minister became President in the March 2010 Presidential Elections.
Presidents are compared and contrasted in Peacemaking. A comparison between the two, the Presidents, the Colombian President Santos and the Sudanese President Bashir is in the sincerity of both about peace in their respective countries.
هل هى اقصوصة مدينتين الخرطوم و بوقوتا ام هى قضية مرتبطة برئيسى الدولتين السزدان و كولومبيا
The question is as to whether it meant a short story of the two Capital cities – Tale of Two Cities – of Khartoum and Bogota or is it an issue linked to the Presidents of the two countries Sudan and Colombia?
A note to the reader:
I hope I have not been unnecessarily too much pedantic wording in the forgoing statements thus far.
The President of Colombia has never committed any crimes against his citizens he even tried everything possible to reach a sustainable peace agreement with the rebels in FARC and received subsequently the Nobel Prize for Peace for the Year 2016 award while the Sudanese President Marshal Omar al-Bashir remained the ruler of Sudan for 28-years ruling the country with iron fist and sparking absurd civil wars of attrition and abrogating peace agreements with the opponents and his people and killed civilians in cold blood and committed the crimes of genocide in Darfur and remained at large on the run from international justice and is wanted by the international Criminal Court (ICC) since the fourth of March 2009.
Thus the difference between the Two Presidents about peace in the two countries is huge. Moreover, President Santos is a civilian politician who came to Power through Democratic free fair and transparent elections whereas President Bashir came to Power through a Military Coup d’état, on Friday 30th June 1989, undermining the democratic system to oust the democratically elected government.
Methodology and Data collection
In addition to the pre-existing information available in advance with me that will enable me to go ahead with the study in preparation to reaching to important and significant results. Moreover, what I have previously gathered and knew of about two countries will help us move forward to accomplish the mission behind this search and access to scientific knowledge and credible results and accomplish the mission which one believes it is not an impossible by all measures. Thus, the author’s accumulated knowledge coupled with the data obtained and has been compiled from different sources including the search engine google along with the internet which a global computer network is providing a variety of information and communication facilities.
Below is the old map of the Greater Sudan prior to the cessation of the southern region which established its independent country of South Sudan in 2011. In fact, the map shows clearly the two separate States of Sudan in the north and South Sudan in the south.
The Map of Sudan prior to the cessation of its Southern Region which has become the nascent independent country, the 193rd member of the United Nations on 14 July 2011. South Sudan’s independence from the rest of Sudan is the result of the January 2011 referendum held under the terms of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) that ended the decades-long civil war between the North and the South Sudan. 99% of South Sudanese voted to secede from the north part of Sudan in the January 2011 referendum.
South Sudan’s national flag (centre) flies at UN Headquarters following its admission as the 193rd Member State. UN/E. Schneider
The Darfur Genocide
The “Darfur Genocide” refers to the current mass slaughter and rape of Darfuri men, women, and children in Western Sudan. The killings began in 2003, as the first genocide in the 21st century. Unrest and violence persist today.
The genocide is being carried out by a group of government-armed and funded Arab militias known as the Janjaweed (which loosely translates to ‘devils on horseback’). The Janjaweed systematically destroy Darfurians by burning villages, looting economic resources, polluting water sources, and murdering, raping, and torturing civilians. These militias are historic rivals of the main rebel groups, the Sudanese Liberation Movement (SLM), and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM). As of today, over 480,000 people have been killed, and over 2.8 million people are displaced.
Sudan is the largest country in Africa. Located in Northeastern Africa, it borders the Red Sea and falls between Egypt, Chad, Uganda, as well as six other countries. The capitol, Khartoum, is in the Northeastern part of the country. Darfur is a region in Western Sudan that encompasses an area roughly the size of Spain. The population of Darfur is estimated at 6,000,000 people. The conflict in Darfur has also increased tensions in neighboring Chad and the Central African Republic as hundreds of thousands of refugees stream over the two countries’ borders to escape violence.
Following independence from Britain in 1956, Sudan became embroiled in two prolonged civil wars for most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted in northern economic, political, and social domination of largely non-Muslim, non-Arab, southern Sudanese. Competition for scarce resources played a large role. As nomads began to compete for grazing land, traditional reconciliation measures were no longer able to settle disputes, causing the region to become increasingly militarized. The complexities of desertification, famines, and the civil war raging between North and South Sudan contributed to a rise in regional tensions during the 1980s. Similarly, as oil was discovered in Western Sudan, the Sudanese government and international contributors became increasingly interested in the land in Darfur.
Internally displaced persons
The first civil war ended in 1972 but broke out again in 1983. The second war and famine-related effects resulted in more than 4 million people being displaced and, according to rebel estimates, more than 2 million deaths over a period of two decades. As the civil war between the North and the South reached its peak in the 1990’s, the government ignored reports of rising violence in Darfur.
While the Comprehensive Peace Agreement ended the North-South War in 2005, granting additional political power to South Sudan, it failed to take into account the effects of the war on Darfur. Additionally, Darfur remained underdeveloped and marginalized at the federal level, lacking infrastructure and development assistance. This neglect, combined with allegations that the government was arming Arab tribesmen (Janjaweed) to raid non-Arab villages, was cited as the justification for a February 2003 rebel attack on a Sudanese Air Force Base at El Fasher, North Darfur. This attack sparked a series of government reprisals on residents of Darfur, contributing to the large-scale human rights atrocities facing Darfurian civilians today.
Failed peace talks have allowed for the continuation of the conflict. The most successful talks thus far took place in Abuja in 2005-2006, leading to the Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA). Present at these negotiations were the Sudanese government and three main rebel groups: the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM), Abdel Wahid Mohamed al-Nur’s faction of the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM), and Minni Minawi’s faction of the SLM. However, multiple negotiations have thus far been largely unsuccessful.
Armed Janjaweed Militia
Early in 2008, the UN issued a hybrid United Nations-African Union mission (UNAMID) to maintain peace in Darfur. UNAMID, with a projected strength of 26,000 troops, was authorized to use force to protect civilians. Despite this mandate, however, only 9,000 were sent, and they lacked the necessary equipment to carry out their mission.
On March 4, 2009, the International Criminal Court issued an arrest warrant for Sudanese President Omar Bashir for crimes against humanity and, in July 2010, a warrant for arrest on charges of genocide. The government of Sudan, however, has yet to turn him over, and since the issuance of the warrants, the country has seen major protests and increased violence. The government has also forcefully expelled aid agencies from the country that has further jeopardized the conditions for thousands of displaced and marginalized civilians.
President Omar al-Bashir
It is expected that al-Bashir will not face trial at the International Criminal Court in The Hague until he is apprehended in a nation which accepts the ICC’s jurisdiction. Sudan is not a state party to the Rome Statute, the international treaty creating the ICC, which it signed but didn’t ratify. By all accounts, al-Bashir should be a prisoner in his own country. However, the Arab League has announced its solidarity with al-Bashir. Since the warrant, he has visited Qatar and Egypt. Both countries have refused to arrest him and the African Union also condemned the arrest warrant and asked the United Nations Security Council to delay its enforcement.
The Sudanese government and JEM signed a ceasefire agreement in February 2010, with a tentative agreement to pursue further peace. However, talks have been disrupted by accusations that the Sudanese army continues to launch raids and air strikes against Darfur villages.
The Janjaweed have also been accused of incursions and attacks in neighboring Chad. Hundreds of aid workers in Chad have already been evacuated due to increased tension between rebel groups and military forces. Meanwhile, the Janjaweed have ventured deep into Chad to conduct assaults, resulting in the fleeing of nearly 100,000 Chadians.
In July 2011, South Sudan gained independence and became its own nation. During the same month, the Liberation and Justice Movement, an umbrella organization representing rebel groups, and the Sudanese government signed the Doha Document for Peace in Darfur (DDPD). This document represents the process of peace in Darfur; however, little progress has been made after the document was signed because of lack of implementation and enforcement.
As 2013 began, there was violence between Abbala/Rezeigat and Beni Hussein tribes over goldmines. This left thousands displaced and many dead. Conflicts between communities in Central Darfur spread to South Darfur, displacing tens of thousands of people in April 2013.
The UN estimates that approximately 130,000 people were displaced in 2015 in an unverified report. Out of approximately 7.5 million people living in Darfur, the UN estimates that over 3 million are still heavily impacted by the conflict.
Attacks on Darfuri villages commonly begin with Sudanese Air Force bombings. Air campaigns are often followed by Janjaweed militia raids. All remaining village men, women, and children are either murdered or forced to flee. Looting, burning food stocks, enslaving and raping women and children, and stealing livestock are common. Dead bodies are tossed in wells to contaminate water supplies and entire villages are burned to the ground.
The on-going conflict in Darfur, Sudan was declared “genocide” by United States Secretary of State Colin Powell on September 9, 2004, in testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. On February 18, 2006, President George W. Bush called for the number of international troops in Darfur to be doubled.
On September 17, 2006, British Prime Minister Tony Blair wrote an open letter to the members of the European Union calling for a unified response to the crisis. In supporting the United Nations Security Council Resolution in 2007 to authorize the deployment of up to 26,000 peacekeepers to try to stop the violence in Darfur, British Prime Minister Gordon Brown said in a speech before the General Assembly of the United Nations, the Darfur crisis was “the greatest humanitarian disaster the world faces today.” The British government also endorsed the International Criminal Court’s ruling regarding Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir and has urged the Sudanese government to co-operate.
Victims of Genocide
Both China and Russia have worked to block many United Nations resolutions in attempts to appease the Sudanese government. From its seat on the United Nations Security Council, China has been Sudan’s chief diplomatic ally. China invests heavily in Sudanese oil. The country is China’s largest oversees oil provider. Sudan’s military is supplied by Chinese-made helicopters, tanks, fighter planes, bombers, rocket launch propelled grenades, and machine guns.
For decades, Russia and China have maintained a strong economic and politically strategic partnership. The countries opposed UN peace keeping troops in the Sudan. Russia strongly supports Sudan’s territorial integrity and opposes the creation of an independent Darfuri state. Also, Russia is Sudan’s strongest investment partner and political ally in Europe. Russia considers Sudan as an important global ally in the African continent.
‘The British people took a leap in the dark and landed safely’
The Sudanese President Omer al-Bashir took a leap in the Dark through the most treacherous travel and ended in gloomy darkness whereas the Colombian President Santos took a leap in the dark and landed in bright Luminance safely! Santos has managed to revive peace to his country while Bashir continues trying all his eroded regime efforts to enhance the suffering of the people of his country.
Darfur Genocide, 2003 – present
Darfur Genocide, 2003 – present
© World Without Genocide 2013 www.worldwithoutgenocide.org/Darfur
The Sudanese government trains and arms Arab militias to kill, terrorize and destroy the predominantly non-Arab Darfur region in Sudan.
Darfur is a region in Western Sudan that encompasses an area roughly the size of Spain.
The population of Darfur is estimated at 6 million people. Hundreds of thousands of
refugees have fled into neighboring Chad and the Central African Republic.
Following independence from Britain in 1956, Sudan became embroiled in two prolonged civil wars for most of the remainder
of the 20th century. Competition for scarce resources played a large role in these conflicts. Oil was discovered in western
Sudan and the Sudanese government and international contributors became increasingly interested in the land in Darfur. The
genocide in Darfur began in 2003 and continues today, driven by conflict between largely Arab grazers and non-Arab farmers.
Government-supported Arab tribesman (Janjaweed) systematically raid non-Arab
villages in Darfur, killing and terrorizing the people and burning the villages. The goal
is to remove the non-Arab farmers from the land to create a Pan-Arab state.
Attacks on Darfuri villages commonly begin with Sudanese Air Force bombings
followed by Janjaweed militia raids. All remaining village men, women, and children
are murdered or forced to flee. Looting, burning of food stocks, enslaving and raping
women and children, and stealing livestock are common. Dead bodies are tossed in
wells to contaminate water supplies and entire villages are burned to the ground.
In 2004, the United States declared the on-going conflict in Darfur to be ‘genocide.’ In 2006, President Bush called for the
number of international troops in Darfur to be doubled. British Prime Minister Tony Blair called upon the members of the
European Union for a unified response to the crisis.
In 2008, the UN issued a hybrid United Nations-African Union mission (UNAMID) to maintain peace in Darfur. A UNAMID force
of 26,000 troops was authorized to use force to protect civilians, but despite this mandate, too few were sent and they lacked
the necessary equipment to carry out their mission.
In 2009, the International Criminal Court issued an arrest warrant for Sudanese President Omar Bashir for crimes against
humanity and, in 2010, a warrant for arrest on charges of genocide. The government of Sudan has yet to turn him over to the
Court and, since the issuance of the warrants, the country has seen increased violence. The government forcefully expelled aid
agencies, further jeopardizing the conditions for thousands of displaced and marginalized civilians.
In attempts to appease the Sudanese government, China and Russia, both permanent members of the Security Council, have
blocked many United Nations resolutions. China is Sudan’s chief diplomatic ally and invests heavily in Sudanese oil. Sudan’s
military is supplied by Chinese-made tanks, fighter planes, bombers, rocket launch propelled grenades, and machine guns. For
decades, Russia and China have maintained a strong economic and politically strategic partnership. Russia is Sudan’s strongest
investment partner and political ally in Europe.
According to the United Nations, more than 2.7 million people are internally displaced and more than 350,000 are refugees in
neighboring Chad. More than 400,000 have been killed; approximately 5,000 people die each month. The Sudanese
government denies any culpability for the violence, displacement, and death.
Sudan announces its participation in the Saudi-led alliance against the Houthis in Yemen
السودان يعلن مشاركته بالتحالف الذي تقوده السعودية ضد الحوثيين في اليمن
In the table below the Colombian President Santos VS the Sudanese President al-Bashir are Compared and Contrasted at a glance:
|Full Name||Juan Manuel Santos Calderón||Omer Hassan Ahmed al-Bashir|
|Date of Birth||10 August 1951||01 January 1944|
|Qualifications||B.A. in economics and business at the University of Kansas (1973) USA||Before taking the helm, Bashir was a Brigadier General and commander in the Sudan Armed Force (SAF)|
|Date of inauguration||7 August 2010||30 June 1989|
|In Power Since||7 August 2010||30 June 1989|
|What each of them achieved globally through his work||2016 Nobel Peace Prize||the International Criminal Court (ICC) indicted President Bashir of committing war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide in Darfur|
|Came to power after Predecessor||President Álvaro Uribe Vélez||Prime Minister al-Sadiq al-Mahdi|
|Party||Social Party of National Unity||National Congress Party|
|Number of predecessors in the helm of the country||Santos is the 32nd and current President of Colombia||Bashir is the 6th President of Sudan since the Independence of Sudan in 1956|
|Rebel Groups||Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) & National Liberation Army (ELN)||Sudan Liberation Army/Movement (SLA/M) & Sudanese Justice and Equality Movement (JEM)|
|Number of people killed||Colombian conflict has killed 220,000 in 55 years and more than five million civilians were forced from their homes between 1985 – 2012,||The number of people killed in the conflict in Darfur is hard to determine. The United Nations says as many as 300,000 may have died since 2003 – Khartoum puts the figure closer to 10,000.|
|Beginning of the Conflict||The FARC group was founded in 1964, when it declared its intention to overthrow the government and install a Marxist regime.||The Conflict in Darfur began in February 26 2003|
|Colombian peso||Sudanese Pound|
|Population||47.12 million (2013)||37.96 million (2013)|
|The Date at which the flag adopted||adopted on November 26, 1861||Adopted on: 20 May 1970|
|Size in square miles||1,138,903 square kilometers (439,733 square miles)||Situated in northeast Africa, Sudan was the largest country on the continent, before the cessation of the South Sudan in 2010 when it was covering an area of 2,505,810 sq. km (967,499 sq. mi),Now shrank into only 1,886,068 km2 (728,215 square miles)|
|GDP per capita||$8,076 (2014) (nominal, 71st) $14,171 (2015) (PPP)||1,753.38 USD (2013) World Bank|
|Use of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)||Never Used and
3 Oct 2006 – Colombia had signed all treaties on weapons of mass destruction under which the nuclear-weapon States would not use, or threaten to use.
|Amnesty International has gathered harrowing evidence strongly suggesting the repeated use of chemical weapons against civilians, including very young children, in Jebel Marra – one the most remote parts of Darfur.|
|The duration of the war in each of the two countries||Start date: 1964
|Start date: 2003
|Number of people Died during the Conflict||220,000 people have died in the Colombian conflict between 1958 and 2013||The (UN) says as many as 300,000 may have died since 2003 – Khartoum puts the figure closer to 10,000.31 Jul 2014|
|Rebel Groups involved in the Conflict||left-wing guerrillas such as the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), and the National Liberation Army (ELN)||Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) rebel groups|
|Involvement of Proxy Militias in the Conflict||There are only liberal and communist militants, namely (FARC) and (ELN) but no government allied militias but the Colombian drug cartels exist||The Janjaweed – Rapid Support Force (RSF) are the (GoS) Proxy militias that operate in Darfur, western Sudan, and eastern Chad. The term janjawīd, formed from the Triad of Arabic words for “man”, “gun” and “horse”; also transliterated Janjawid)|
|Existence of Racist Rhetoric in the war||78.5 percent of Afro-Colombians live below the poverty line and barriers like racial discrimination exist Yet few Colombians, let alone foreigners, are paying attention.||The GoS has created an environment of fear, hate and racism in the universities and Darfuri students are experiencing [an] unprecedented racist bloody campaign by the ruling party’s student militias as well as the national intelligence and security service (NISS).
Times of the greatest intensity follow close on the heels of racially inflammatory rhetoric by the Sudanese government and militia leaders. The Sudanese government is enlisting the help of Arab militias to destroy the black African population in Darfur. This has destroyed the national social fabric to a great extent.
|Separatist Secessionist Tendencies||The Department of Antioquia and its capital city is Medellin is one of the 32 departments of Colombia between autonomism and secessionism?||South Sudan officially became the Republic of South Sudan that gained its independence from Sudan in on 7 February 2011, the referendum commission published the final results, with 98.83% voting in favour of independence taking with it one third of the land and population along with three quarters of the Oil!|
|The continent to which the Country belongs||Colombia is a transcontinental country largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.||Sudan is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea, Eritrea, and Ethiopia to the east, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west and Libya to the northwest. It is the third largest country in the African continent.|
|The ethnic or national affiliation that the ruling regime in the country officially adopts||The Colombian Constitution of 1991 abolished the previous condition of the Roman Catholic Church as state church It includes two articles providing for freedom of worship:
|Arabism, allegiance to the Arab race, membership of the League of Arab States, Islamic religion and no other religion after the secession of southern Sudan, as announced by the President of Sudan Marshal Omar Hassan Ahmed Bashir.|
|Government Efforts for National reconciliation with the Opposition factions and the citizens of the country||Public Dialogue on Peace and Reconciliation in Colombia
Public dialogue examines the Colombia civil conflict, bringing together political leaders from different sides of the conflict. They will discuss (in a fluid dialogue format) their experiences within the Colombian peace process and lessons for the current context of talks between the Colombian government and the FARC rebel group
|The 4-year long National Dialogue – Wathba Satirically- is thought by the average Sudanese as a sort of hypocrisy and a maneuver to gain time in power and to distract the opposition and remove them away from issues of concern to the people as well as a mere laughingstock اضحوكة to the Sudanese people.|
|whether the respective country has been participating in a regional or in an international war for a financial return||None||Sudan has participated in the Saudi Arabian-led alliance against the Houthis in Yemen codenamed ‘Operation Decisive Storm’ in favour of the government of President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi. $ 2,000 per month will be paid to each Sudanese soldier for military service in Yemen within the coalition forces.|
|The Identity of the people of the country||Citizenship||Identity in Dilemma|
220,000 people have died in the Colombian conflict between 1958 and 2013
The number of people killed in the conflict in Darfur is hard to determine. The United Nations (UN) says as many as 300,000 may have died since 2003 – 2014
Who are the Janjaweed? They are government of Sudan allied militias who fight a proxy war on behalf of the (GoS).
The Janjaweed (Arabic: جنجويد janjawīd, formed from the Arabic words for “man”, “gun” and “horse”; also transliterated Janjawid) are a militia that operate in Darfur, western Sudan, and eastern Chad.
Currency: Colombian peso
Official language: Spanish
Juan Manuel Santos Calderón (Spanish: [xwan maˈnwel ˈsantos kaldeˈɾon]; born 10 August 1951), GColIH is the 32nd and current President of Colombia and sole recipient of the 2016 Nobel Peace Prize.
Social Party of National Unity · 2016 Nobel Peace Prize ·
Who was the first president of Colombia?
The first president, General Simón Bolívar, took office in 1819. His position, initially self-proclaimed, was subsequently ratified by Congress. The current president of the Republic of Colombia is Juan Manuel Santos, who took office on 7 August 2010.
When Juan Manuel Santos was elected president?
On 20 June 2010, after two rounds of voting in the Presidential election, Juan Manuel Santos Calderón was officially elected as President of Colombia and was inaugurated on 7 August 2010 in the midst of a diplomatic crisis with Venezuela, which was quickly resolved.
Omer al-Bashir took office as a President of Sudan on Friday 30 June 1989 through a military coup d état.
Juan Manuel Santos, in full Juan Manuel Santos Calderón (born August 10, 1951, Bogotá, Colombia), Colombian politician who cofounded (2005) the Social Party of National Unity (Partido Social de Unidad Nacional, or Partido de la U), later served as president of Colombia (2010– ), and was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2016 for his efforts to end the protracted war with the Marxist guerrilla organization FARC (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia; “Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia”).
Santos was born into an influential political family. His great-uncle Eduardo Santos Montejo was Colombia’s president from 1938 to 1942, and his cousin Francisco Santos Calderón served as vice president (2002–10) under Álvaro Uribe Vélez. The family also founded El Tiempo, one of the country’s largest newspapers. Santos attended the Naval Academy of Cartagena before traveling to the United States to earn a B.A. in economics and business at the University of Kansas (1973). After graduating, he headed the Colombian delegation to the London-based International Coffee Organization. While there Santos earned a master’s degree in economics, economic development, and public administration from the London School of Economics. He added a master’s degree in public administration from Harvard University (1981) before returning to Colombia to work as an editor at El Tiempo, where his reporting earned him a number of accolades.
Santos resigned his cabinet post in 2009 to run for the presidency. His promise to continue the policies of Uribe, who was constitutionally barred from seeking a third term, proved popular with voters. Santos received 47 percent of the ballots in the first round of polling in May 2010, and in the second round, held on June 20, he secured 69 percent of the vote in a landslide victory. Santos took office on August 7, 2010.
The fate of President of the National Congress Party (NCP) in Sudan, Field Marshal Omer Hassan Ahmed al-Bashir who has been in power he took over through a Military Coup d’état 28 years ago and continued ruling his country using Nominal but fake rigged electoral process throughout contrary to the principles of elections, will inevitably come to an end akin to that of the 22 years in power of the former Gambian President Yahya Jammeh who came to an inglorious end. As for the highly respected and exalted peacemaker Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos, when his term in office comes to an end, he is Certainly would follow the well-established democratic principles of peaceful exchange of power through free, fair and transparent democratic general elections in the presence of international observers and he hands over power to those chosen by the willing majority of the people of his country.
If you can’t beat them join them principle is a null and void here!
There are a number of phrases and words; they are words of “truth” but meant to be used for the worst in the era of what is known as the Islamic National Front (NIF) or the National Congress Party (NCP). There is much that many do not know from the plans of the ruling regime of the National Congress Party to stay in power using all that is criminal using the principle of the end justifies the means along with the attempt at secret plan called the Shiite Dissimulation and the Freemasonry deceit sanctioned as halal by the Fatwas of the Clerics allied to the Front (NIF) or the National Congress Party (NCP) in the embattled Sudan. There is one important question among the so many unanswered ones is as to whether Omer al-Bashir can escape the shadow of the ICC haunting him day and night in his stay and or in his departure/travel?!
Omar al-Bashir Imagines that he is like the Pharaoh, who thought that everything in the world of Egypt belongs to him and that his opinion is above all opinions and he sees only what he sees or so as his actions towards the people of Sudan show. There is no reason to believe that the foregoing is not the case in the minds of the tyrant.
The kind of the foregoing study can go on further if one tried to convince everyone; It is not possible to please everyone especially those who dispute in order to refute the truth with false argument.
Francis Bacon- (1561-1626) Philosopher, British Lord Chancellor has been quoted as saying: “Men prefer to believe what they prefer to be true.”
Dr. Mahmoud A. Suleiman is an author, columnist and a blogger. His blog is https://thussudan.wordpress.com/
They once said “the impossible are three the existence of ghouls, the phoenix and the faithful friend”!
قالوا قديماً “المستحيلات ثلاثة الغول والعنقاء والخل الوفي“،